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被动语态专题课件

时间2019-05-21 来源:千柏文学网

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篇一:初中被动语态

教学过程

一、复习预习

被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,表示中的主语是动作的承受者,汉语往往用“被”、“受”、“给”等词来表示被动意义。今天我们复习被动语态,知识点小而多,希望在学习中认真再认真。

二、知识讲解

知识点1. 被动语态的用法

在被动语态中,主语是动作的承受者,主要用于下列几种情况: 1、不知道动作的执行者是谁。如: This watch is made in China. 这块手表是中国制造的。

some new computers were stolen last night. 一些新电脑在昨晚被盗了。

2、没有必要指出动作的执行者是谁。如: More trees must be planted every day. 每年都应该种更多的树。

Eight hours per day for sleep must be guaranteed. 每天8小时睡眠必须得到保证。

3、需要强调或突出动作的承受者时。如:

Chinese is spoken by more and more people in the world. 世界上越来越多的人说汉语。 4、句子的主语不是人。如:

Many houses were washed away by the flood. 许多房屋被洪水冲走了。 知识点2. 被动语态的结构

(1)被动语态的基本结构为:be + 动词的过去分词

【记忆窍门】宾变主,主变宾,by短语后面跟。谓语动词变被动,be后�D过分‖来使用。 (2) 被动语态结构与SVC(动词-ed形式作表语)结构的区别

被动语态表示动作,句子主语为动作的对象,SVC结构表示主语的特点或所处的状态,其中的过去分词相当于形容词,be只有一般时态和完成时态。被动结构的时态一般要与相应的主动结构一致。下面把这两种结构作一比较:

1、The library is usually closed at 6.图书馆通常六点关门。(被动语态) The library is now closed.图书馆关门了。(SVC结构)

2、The bridge was completed in 1968.桥是1968年建成的。(被动语态)

The bridge is completed.桥已修好。(SVC结构)

3、The glass was broken by my sister.玻璃杯是我妹妹打破的。(被动语态) The glass is broken.玻璃杯破了。(SVC结构) 为了便于考生们的理解,再举几个SVC结构的例句:

The gun is loaded.枪装上子弹了。

Your composition is well written.你的写得很好。 The door is locked.门锁着。

He was injured in the leg.他腿部受了伤。 知识点3. 主动语态变为被动语态

1、要将主动句中的宾语变为被动句中的主语,若主动句中的宾语是人称代词,要将宾格变为主格。

2、把主动句中的主语变为被动句中的宾语,主格代词变成宾格代词,并由by引导。 3、谓语动词变成相应的被动形式。

主动语态:动作执行者 + 谓语动词主动形式 + 动作承受者

被动语态:动作承受者 + 谓语动词被动形式 + 动作执行者

他被我们要求唱一首英文歌。 知识点4. 时态与语态的结合

(1) 带双宾语的谓语动词变为被动语态

谓语动词带双宾语时,既可以将间接宾语转化成主语,也可以将直接宾语转化成主语。若将间接宾语转化成主语,则保留直接宾语;若将直接宾语转化成主语则保留间接宾语,且在被保留的间接宾语前加上介词to或for。如:

A book was given to me by her.

(2) 动词短语变为被动语态

许多由不及物动词和介词、副词构成的动词短语相当于及物动词,可以有宾语,也可以有被动语态。但是动词短语是一个不可分割的整体,在变为被动语态的时候,不可丢掉构成动词短语的介词或者副词。 如:

We should speak to old men politely. (变为被动语态)

Old men should be spoken to politely.(to 不可省略) His best friend often looks after him.

He is often looked after by his best friend.

(3)带复合宾语的动词变为被动语态

宾语加上宾语补足语一起构成复合宾语。变被动语态时,只把宾语变为被动句的主语,宾语补足语保留在原处,成为主语补足语。如:

(4)变为被动语态后动词形式的选择

主动句中在感官动词see, hear, watch, feel, notice等,及使役动词let, make, have等后跟省略to的不定式,变为被动句时,应加上不定式符号to。如:

He makes the girl stay at home. The girl is made to stay at home by him. (5)日积月累

It is said that+从句及其他类似句型

一些表示�D据说‖或�D相信‖的动词如believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think等可以用于句型�DIt+be+过去分词+that从句‖或�D主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.‖。有: It is said that… 据说,It is reported that…据报道,It is believed that…大家相信,It is hoped that…大家希望,It is well known that…众所周知,It is thought that…大家认为,It is suggested that…据建议。

例:It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. (=The boy is said to have passed the national exam. )

易错点1及物动词(或动词短语)有被动语态;不及物动词(或动词短语)无被动语态。

例如:(1)【误】The accident was happened this morning.

【正】The accident happened this morning.

(2)【误】 Great changes were taken place in the past ten years in China.

【正】 Greatchangeshave taken place in the past ten years in China.

易错点2主动句中带双宾语的动词,若将直接宾语改为被动句的主语,动词后应加to 或

for;如将间接宾语改为被动句的主语,不需加介词。 例如:【误】A present was given everybody yesterday承德市权威的儿童癫痫病医院. 【正】 Apresentwasgivento everybody yesterday. 【正】Everybody was given a present yesterday.

常见的带双宾语的动词有:give, send, pass, show, bring, tell( 以上单词通常用 to) ,buy, get, read, make (以上单词通常用for)。

易错点3�D感使动词‖(feel, hear, listen to, let, have, make, see, watch, notice, look at)真奇怪,主

动结构�Dto‖走开,被动结构又请来,十个动词要记牢,不会被它再难倒。 例如:(1)【误】Lily is often heard sing in her bedroom.

【正】Lilyisoften heard to sing in her bedroom.

(2)【误】When father was young, he was made work from morning till night.

【正】When father was young, he was made to work from morning till night.

篇二:被动语态专题

被动语态专题

申青青

一 英语动词有两种语态: 即主动语态和被动语态。

二 被动语态的构成:被动语态由“be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。

be有人称、数和时态的变化。

被动语态句型的基本结构:

主语(承受者)+ be + v. pp + by 执行者

三 主、被动语态的转换

主动语态:主语+及物动词+宾语(+其他)

被动语态:主语+be+及物动词过去分词+by+宾语

(+其他)

His brother washes bowls every day

Bowls are washed bt his brother every day

四 各种时态的被动语态结构

1)am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时

2) has /have been done 现在完成时

3) am/is /are being done 现在进行时

4 )was/were done 一般过去时

5) had been done 过去完成时

6)was/were being done 过去进行时

7)shall/will be done 一般将来时

8)should/would be done 过去将来时

五 被动时态中的特殊形式

1)带情态动词的被动结构

其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词。

2)一些表示“据说”或“相信”的动词如believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think等可以用于句型

“It+be+过去分词+that从句”或“主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.”。

It is said that… 据说,

It is reported that…据报道,

It is believed that…大家相信

It is hoped that…大家希望,

It is well known that…众所周知,

It is thought that…大家认为,

It is suggested that…据建议。

It is said that the boy has passed the national exam

=The boy is said to have passed the national exam

六 主动语态变被动语态应注意的问题

1.把主动语态变为被动语态时,应保留主动语态原来

的时态。如:She often cleans the house.

The house is often cleaned by her.

2.有些动词可以有双宾语,在用于被动结构时, 通常变为主语的是间接宾语(sb.)

His mother gave him a present for his birthday

He was given a present by his mother for his birthday.

3 在使役动词have, make, get以及

感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel

等后接动词原形的变为被动结构时,要加to

Someone saw a stranger walk into the building

=A stranger was seen to walk into the building.

七 用主动形式表示被动含义的情况有

1、系动词 taste, smell, feel, sound, prove

等可用主动形式表达被动意义。如:

这些花闻起来很香。

These flowers smell sweet

那听起来很有道理。

That sounds very reasonable

那食物尝起来很可口。

The food tastes delicious

2.某些可用来表示主语内在品质或性能

的不及物动词,如 sell, write, wash, clean,

wear(耐穿), 等可用主动形式表

达被动意义. 如:

This kind of food sells well.

这种食物畅销。

This cloth washes well and lasts long.

这布料经洗、耐穿。

The floor doesn’t clean easily.

这地板不容易弄干净。

3.在动词 require, need, want 等动词之

后,可用动名词的主动一般怎样治疗癫痫病会有效果形式表示被动意义。

树需要浇水。

The trees need watering

孩子需要照顾。

Children want looking after.

电视机需要修理。

The TV needs mending

4.动词不定式的主动形式表示被动意义:

a.不定式作定语与被修饰的名词或代词构成

动宾关系时,如:I have a lot of things to do.

b.在“系动词+形容词+不定式”结构中,

常见句型有:

1)n. +be + too + adj. + to do…

The plane is too high to see.

2) n. +be + adj. + enough + to do…

The book is cheap enough for me to buy.

3) n. + be + adj. + to do…

The question is not easy to answer.

课堂练习

(一)改写句子

1. We plant trees in spring every year.

_________________ by us in spring every year.

2. She posted the letter yesterday.

____________________ by her yesterday.

3. Mr Turner gave me a birthday present.

_______________a birthday present by Mr Turner.

4. He is drawing a picture.

_______________________ by him.

5. You may hand in your homework tomorrow.

______________________________ by you tomorrow.

6. She is going to write a letter.

__________________________ by her.

1. If city noises ____ from increasing,people ____ shout to be heard even at dinner.

A. are not kept;will have to

B. are not kept;have

C. do not keep;will have to

D. do not keep;have to

2. The fifth generation computers ____and

perfected now.

A. developed B. have developed

C. are being developedD. will have been developed

3. --- ____ the sports meet might be put off.

--- Yes,it all depends on the weather.

A. I've been toldB. I've told

C. I'm toldD. I told

4. I need one more stamp before my collection ___.

A. has completed B. completes

C. has been completed D. is completed

5. Rainforests ___ and burned at such a speed

that they will disappear from the earth in the near future.

A. cut B. are cut

C. are being cut D. had been cut

6. The new bridge ___ by the end of last month.

A. has been designed

B. had been designed

C. was designed

D. would be designed

篇三:初中被动语态专题

初中被动语态专题

一、语态概述

我吃了一个苹果, 那现在苹果怎样了?苹果被我吃了。正如汉语中的被字句,英语中的“被字句”我们称之为被动语态。英语中有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。英语的语态是通过动词形式的变化表现出来的。

主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者。巧记为:主动、主动、主去动。 例如:Many people speak English.

谓语:speak的动作是由主语many people来执行的。

被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者,即行为动作的对象。巧记为:被动、被动、主被动。例如:English is spoken by many people.主语English是动词speak的承受者。

例如:He opened the door.他开了门。(主动句) The door was opened.门被开了。(被动句)

二、被动语态的构成

被动语态由“be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。不及物动词本身没有被动语态。及物动词---本身意义不完整,后必须带宾语,有些还可以带双宾。

不及物动词---本身意义完整,不需要带宾语,如带宾语必须通过介词。

人称、数和时态的变化是通过be的变化表现出来的。

三.被动语态的句型

肯定句:主语+be+动词过去分词

否定句:主语+be+not+动词过去分词

一般疑问句:Be+主语+动词过去分词

特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+be+主语+动词过去分词

四.各种时态的被动语态

一般现在时:am/is/are+动词过去分词

Cars are made by them.

一般过去时:was/were+动词过去分词

The MP3 was bought by my father.

一般将来时:will/shall/be going to be+动词过去分词

The bridge will be completed in ten days.

现在进行时:am/is/are being+动词过去分词

Is the bike being mended now?

过去进行时:was/were being+动词过去分词

The dinned was being cooked.

现在完成时:have/has been+动词过去分词

The meeting has been put off.

过去完成时:had been+动词过去分词

Many old houses had been pulled down by the end of last year.

过去将来时:would/should/be going to be+动词过去分词

Trees would be cut down.

注:被动语态没有完成进行时,也没有将来进行时,如果有这类时态的主动结构,要变为被动结构,可用完成时态和一般时态。

如: We have been discussing the problem for two days.→ The problem has been discussed for two days.

We will be discussing it tomorrow.→ It will be discussed tomorrow.

五、含有情态动词的被动语态

含有情态动词的主动句变成被动句时,由“情态动词+be+过去分词”构成,原来带to的情态动词变成被动语态后“to”仍要保留。歌诀是:情态动词变动,情态加be加“过分”。例如:

we can repair this watch in two days. →This watch can be repaired in two days.

We must finish this work soon. →This work must be done soon.

We have to clean the classroom. → The classroom has to be cleaned by us.

六、被动语态的用法

(1)不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者是谁。

Some new computers were stolen last night. 一些新电脑在昨晚被盗了。(不知道电脑是谁偷的)

This book was published in 1981.这本书出版于1981年。(没有必要或说出出版者)

(2)强调动作的承受者,而不强调动作的执行者。

The window was broken by mike.窗户是迈克打破的。

This book was written by Lun Xun.这本书是他写的。

(3) 为了更好地安排句子。

The well-known person got on the bus and was immediately recognized by people. (一个主语就够了)

(4) 被动语态还可以用于新闻报道中,为了体现新闻的客观性。

(5) 在科技文献中,为了客观描述事情以及一些过程,常用被动语态。

七、主动语态变被动语态的方法

1.把主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语。

2.把主动语态的谓语变为被动语态的谓语。

3.把主动语态的主语变为被动语态的by短语。(① by短语可以省。② by短语后跟代词的宾格。)

主变被解题步骤

1. 找宾语 ----即动作的承受者

2. 判断宾语的单复数 ----即be动词的单复数.

3. 判断动词的时态 ----即be动词的时态.

4. 修改谓语的形式 ----即原句动词改为过去分词

5. 修改原句的主语 ----即by+ 宾语(原主语). They makeshoes in that factory.

Shoes are made by them.(主变宾,宾变主, 谓动be done 时不变,人称、数、格随着变)

八、主动语态变被动语态需要注意的几个问题.

(1)时态保持一致。

I have repaired my computer.---My computer has been repaired.

(2)如果要说出动作的执行者,并且这个执行者可以作主动语态中主语时,就用by短语,如果后面的词表示地点,不是动作的执行者,就用in短语。

It is made by us. It is made in Wuhan.

(3)主动句的主语是代词的主格形式,变成被动句by的宾语时要用其宾格形式。

He cleaned the car. → The car was cleaned by him.

(4)否定句的被动语态中,not放在第一个助动词或情态动词之后。

You should not blame me. → I should not be blamed by you.

(5)疑问句的被动语态,用be动词的对应形式代替do

Does she drive this car? →Is this car driven by her?

(6)祈使句的被动语态形式为Let +宾语(承受词)+be+动词过去分词

Open the door please. → Let the door be opened please.

(7)主动语态中有反身代词,变被动语态形式为“主动语态主语+be+动词过去分词” Tom hurt himself. → Tom was hurt.

(8)主语时no one ,nobody,变为被动语态时,句子结构变为否定式,by短语变为 by anyone或by anybody

No one can solve the problem. →The problem can’t be solved by anyone.

(9)谓语为动词短语的被动语态不能丢掉动词短语的介词或副词。

His best friend often looks after him. --He is often looked after by his best friend.

(1小儿癫痫治得好吗0)主动句中有一些动词如buy,send,give,show,offer,tell,lend,teach等,带有双宾语,一个是直接宾语(指物),另一个是间接宾语(指人),主动语态变为被动语态时,可以把间接宾语变成主语,保留直接宾语,也可以把直接宾语变为主语,保留间接宾语,但此时一般在间接宾语前加一个介词。

My father gave me a book.

→(1)I was given a book by my father. → (2) A book was given to me by my father. She showed me some photos.

→(1)I was shown some photos by her. → (2) Some photos were shown to me by her. 注意:有些双宾语动词,如do,pass,sell,send,sing,bring,write等,变为被动语态时,通常以直接宾语作主语,保留间接宾语,其前面根据情况用介词to或for

She wrote me a letter. → A letter was written to me by her.

有些双宾语动词如answer,save,envy(羡慕)等,通常以间接宾语作被动语态主语,保留直接宾语。He answered me that question. → I was answered that question by him.

(11)主动语态若有复合宾语,(即句子结构为主语+谓语+宾语+宾补),将主动句的宾语变为被动句的主语,宾补不变。 They call him Louis. --He is called Louis.

Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette. 可改为The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.

(12)主动语态句中使役动词和感官动词的宾语补足语为不带to的不定式,但变为被动语态时要加上to,这类的动词有make, have, let, notice, see, watch, look at, hear, listen to, feel help等。

Mr. Lee made him wash the dishes. → He was made to wash the dishes. I saw a boy cross the street . → A boy was seen to cross the street.

(13)非谓语动词的被动语态v.+ing 形式及不定式 to do 也有被动语态(一般时态和完成时态) 。

例I don't like being laughed at in the public.

(14)It is said that+从句及其他类似句型

一些表示“据说”或“相信”的动词如believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think等可以用于句型“It+be+过去分词+that从句”或“主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.”。有:

It is said that? 据说,It is reported that?据报道,It is believed that?大家相信,It is hoped that?大家希望,It is well known that?众所周知,It is thought that?大家认为,It is suggested that?据建议。

例It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. (=The boy is said to have passed the national exam. )

九、谓语动词的主动形式表示被动意义

1、(1)英语中有很多动词如 break,catch,clean,drive,lock,open,sell,read,write,wash,cut,wear等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,常用其主动形式 表达被动意义,主语通常是物。

例 This kind of cloth washes well. The coats sell well.

The knife cuts well.这刀好使。The shoes wear long.这鞋耐穿。

注意:主动语态表被动强调的是主语的特征,而被动语态则强调外界作用造成的影响。试比较:The door won't lock. (指门本身有毛病)

The door won't be locked. (指不会有人来锁门, 指“门没有锁”是人的原因)

(2) 表示“发生、进行”的不及物动词和短语,如:happen, last, take place, break out, come out(出现), come about(发生), come true, run out(用尽), give out(产生,散发), turn out(产生,证明是)等以主动形式表示被动意义。

How do the newspapers come out? 这些报纸是如何引出来的呢?

(3) 系动词没有被动形式, 但有些表示感受、感官的连系动词feel, sound, taste, book, feel等在主系表结构中常以主动形式表示被动意义。

Your reason sounds reasonable.

2、在某些句型中可用动名词和不定式的主动形式表被动意义 。

(1) 在need,want,require, bear等词的后面,动名词用主动形式表示被动意义,其含义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。

The house needs repairing(to be repaired).这房子需要修理。

(2) 形容词worth后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动含义,即be worth doing,但不能跟动词不定式;而worthy后面跟动词不定式的被动形式。

The picture-book is well worth reading.(=The picture-book is very worthy to be read.)

(3) 动词不定式在名词后面作定语,不定式和名词之间有动宾关系时,又和句中另一名词或代词构成主谓关系, 不定式的主动形式表示被动含义。

I have a lot of things to do this afternoon. (to do与things是动宾关系,与I是主谓关系。)

试比较:I’ll go to the post office. Do you have a letter to be posted? ( 此处用不定式的被动语态作定语表明you不是post动作的执行者。)

(4) 在某些“形容词+不定式”做表语或宾语补足语的结构中,句子的主语或宾语又是动词不定式的逻辑宾语时,这时常用不定式的主动形式表达被动意义。这些形容词有nice,easy,fit,hard,difficult,important,impossible,pleasant,interesting等。 This problem is difficult to work out .(可看作to work out省略了for me).

(5) 在too? to?结构中,不定式前面可加逻辑主语,所以应用主动形式表示被动意义。

This book is too expensive (for me) to buy.

初中被动语态课件教学过程一、复习预习被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,表示句子中的主语是动作的承受者,汉语往往用“被”、“受”、“给”等词来表示被动意义。今天我们复习被动...

作者:不详 来源:网络
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